1. ________ theory proposes that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome.
e) Law of effect
2. The _____ structure is most appropriate for businesses operating in complex and changing environments.
3. ______ is the perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome.
a) Job enrichment
b) Job enlargement
4. In _____ organizations, most decisions are made at lower levels.
5. _____ claim that QWL programs don’t necessarily inspire employees to work harder if the company does not tie rewards directly to individual performance.
6. ______ is the link between expectancy and performance in expectancy theory.
7. What is the benefit of having people participate in the goal setting for their work?
a) People sometimes find ingenious ways to set easy goals and convince their bosses that they are difficult.
b) They tend to generate goals that people accept and pursue willingly.
c) They may then not necessarily contribute to the company’s success.
d) They will set goals that are challenging and unattainable.
e) They may find ways to meet goals simply to receive a reward.
8. _____ is a way of managing in which everyone is committed to continuous improvement of his or her part of the operation.
b) Total quality management
d) Mass customization
e) Mutual adjustment
9. In Maslow’s need hierarchy, _____ need refers to a need for friendship, affection, belonging, and love.
10. In the context of Herzberg’s two-factor theory, motivators
a) even when well managed, can make employees feel dissatisfied.
b) typically include company structures like policies, working conditions, and pay.
c) describe the job itself.
d) are characteristics of a workplace.
e) are not capable of making people truly motivated to do a good job.
11. Frederick’s work performance has greatly improved over the course of the past two months, so his boss decided to upgrade his status from that of a temporary employee to that of a permanent employee. This is an example of
a) intrinsic reward.
b) glass ceiling.
d) negative reinforcement.
12. David, a human resource intern, was given an assignment by his manager. He needed to obtain information from other departments to complete the assignment. But, some departments refused to share information with an intern. David was frustrated because he did not have the power to get the information he needed. In the context of this situation, David’s manager made the mistake of
a) becoming accountable for David’s work.
b) “passing the buck” for David’s performance.
c) delegating inappropriate tasks to an intern.
d) assigning responsibility without delegating adequate authority.
e) overestimating David’s capabilities.
13. Identify one of the following as a characteristic feature of matrix organizations.
a) Higher management levels are overloaded with operational decisions.
b) The decision-making process is highly centralized.
c) Resource utilization is inefficient.
d) The principle of unity-of-command is followed.
e) Dual career ladders are elaborated.
14. Which of the following is an essential characteristic for a goal to be motivating?
a) It should be challenging.
b) It has to be subjective.
c) It has to be unattainable.
d) It has to be provisional.
e) It should not be quantifiable.
15. The _____ step in effective delegation of work responsibilities is selecting the person to whom one will delegate the work.
16. Jacob, the manager at Damon Corp., recently promoted two employees as their performance had greatly improved. This action is an example of
a) halo effect.
b) aversive consequence.
c) glass ceiling.
d) positive reinforcement.
17. ________ involves the instances of withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence.
b) Negative reinforcement
d) Positive reinforcement
18. Which of the following is true of flexible factories?
a) They generate high volumes of a standardized product.
b) They move parts down the line from one location in the production sequence to the next.
c) They have long production runs.
d) They use centralized scheduling, in which decisions are made on the shop floor.
e) They are organized around products, in work cells or teams.
19. Which of the following is a disadvantage of the traditional approaches to departmentalization?
a) Communication between functions may fall off due to conflicts.
b) The approach makes managers generalists, not specialists.
c) People may pay more attention to customer satisfaction than to functional tasks.
d) The structure limits functional differentiation.
e) Employees may care more about the company as a whole than their respective departments.
20. In _____ organizations, more decisions are made at lower levels of management.
21. ________ is the assignment of different tasks to different people or groups in an organization.
a) Supply chain
b) Division of labor
c) Locus of control
d) Value chain
22. ______ is the act of applying a consequence that increases the likelihood that the person will repeat the behavior that led to that result
a) Halo effect
b) Positive reinforcement
c) Glass ceiling
d) Aversive consequence
23. _____ states that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end.
a) Goal-setting theory
b) Challenging goals theory
c) Meaningful goals theory
d) Specific goals theory
e) Acceptable goals theory
24. A ______ is an organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge as well as at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.
a) closed system
c) learning organization
d) formal organization
e) mechanistic organization
25. In a _____ organization, jobs (and departments) are specialized and grouped as production, marketing, human resources, research and development, finance, accounting, and so forth based on the skills they require.
26. In contrast to reinforcement theory, expectancy theory
a) considers some of the cognitive processes that go on in people’s heads.
b) describes the processes by which factors in the work environment affect people’s behavior.
c) does not look at individual performance of employees.
d) has a positive effect on employee retention.
e) focuses on tools such as punishments and extinctions.
27. In a vertical structure, narrow spans of control build a(n) _____ organization with many reporting levels.
28. Which of the following is an example of punishment?
forgetting to say thanks for a favor
taking an employee off probation
withholding an undesirable consequence
giving letters of commendation
assigning an unappealling task
29. Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) supports the production of _____ and _____ products at the same time.
a) low-variety; high-volume
b) high variety; low variety
c) high-variety; high-volume
d) high-variety; low-volume
e) low-variety; low-volume
30. The organization chart depicts the
a) geographical location of the different branches of a business.
b) phone numbers for each employee.
c) office assignments by area of the firm.
d) positions in the firm and the way they are arranged.
e) responsibilities of each job specification.
31. In the ____ approach to organization structure, decision making is decentralized to a level where information is processed properly and relevant knowledge is applied.
32. The approach to coordination, __________, involves feedback and discussions to jointly figure out how to approach problems and devise solutions that are agreeable to everyone.
a) authoritative decision making
b) coordination by formalization
c) coordination by specialization
d) coordination by mutual adjustment
33. Veronica recently accepted a job with a reputed bank as an internal auditor. She found that her job was quite different from her previous internships. Her new company had strictly defined job responsibilities and lines of communication. For every decision she needed to make, approval had to be obtained from upper management. Overall, she found the atmosphere to be quite formal. Veronica’s organization has a
a) flat organizational structure.
b) matrix organizational design.
c) wide span of control.
d) narrow locus of control.
e) high degree of centralization.
34. Customer focus, leadership, involvement of people, and continual improvement are all principles of
a) ISO 9001 standards.
b) high-involvement organization.
c) lean six sigma.
d) IOS 1900 Standards.
e) total quality management.
35. In the context of Maslow’s need hierarchy, the need found at the bottom of the pyramid is the _____ need.
36. Motivation refers to forces that
a) reduce group cohesiveness.
b) promote groupthink.
c) energize, direct, and sustain a person’s efforts.
d) are acquired through education.
e) are basically involuntary.
37. In Maslow’s need hierarchy, which of the following levels of need includes the need for recognition and respect from others?
38. ________ organization has departmentalization that groups units around products, customers, or geographic regions.
39. ______ introduced one of the most important contributions to total quality management—statistical tools to analyze the causes of product defects.
a) Mass inspection
b) Six sigma quality
c) Quality adjustment method
d) mutual adjustment.
40. Which of the following best describes constitutionalism?
a) the desire for experiences that contribute to personal and psychological development
b) a social environment that fosters personal identity
c) a work role that minimizes infringement on personal leisure and family needs
d) the rights of personal privacy, dissent, and due process