# 10.7 when people make estimates, they are influenced by anchors to

10.7 When people make estimates, they are influenced by anchors   to their   estimates. A study was conducted in which students were   asked to   estimate the number of calories in a cheeseburger. One group   was asked to   do this after thinking about a calorie-laden cheesecake.   A second   group was asked to do this after thinking about an organic   fruit salad.   The mean number of calories estimated in a cheeseburger   was 780 for   the group that thought about the cheesecake and 1,041 for   the group   that thought about the organic fruit salad. (Data extracted   from   “Drilling Down, Sizing Up a Cheeseburger’s Caloric Heft,” The   New York   Times, October 4, 2010, p. B2.) Suppose that the study was   based on a   sample of 20 people who thought about the cheesecake   first and 20   people who thought about the organic fruit salad first, and   the standard   deviation of the number of calories in the cheeseburger   was 128 for   the people who thought about the cheesecake first and   140 for the   people who thought about the organic fruit salad first.   a. State the   null and alternative hypotheses if you want to determine   whether the   mean estimated number of calories in the cheeseburger   is lower for   the people who thought about the cheesecake first than   for the   people who thought about the organic fruit salad first.    b. In the   context of this study, what is the meaning of the Type I    error?        c. In the   context of this study, what is the meaning of the Type II    error?        d. At the   0.01 level of significance, is there evidence that the    mean   estimated number of calories in the cheeseburger is lower   for the   people who thought about the cheesecake first than for    the people   who thought about the organic fruit salad first?

10.20 Nine experts rated two brands of Colombian     coffee in a   taste-testing experiment. A rating on a     7-point   scale (1 = extremely unpleasing, 7 = extremely pleasing)    is given for   each of four characteristics: taste, aroma, richness,    and acidity.   The following       data stored   in Coffee contain the       ratings   accumulated over all four characteristics:     a. At the   0.05 level of significance, is there evidence of a difference   in the mean   ratings between the two brands?     b. What   assumption is necessary about the population distribution   in order to   perform this test?       c. Determine   the p-value in (a) and interpret its meaning.    d. Construct   and interpret a 95% confidence interval estimate of    the   difference in the mean ratings between the two brands.

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10.34 Does   co-browsing have positive effects on the customer     experience? Co-browsing refers to   the ability to have a contact     center agent and customer jointly   navigate an online document or    mobile application on a real-time   basis through the web. A study    of businesses indicates that 81 of   129 co-browsing organizations     use skills-based routing to match   the caller with the right agent,     whereas 65 of 176 non-co-browsing   organizations use skills-based    routing to match the caller with the   right agent. (Source: Cobrowsing    Presents a ‘Lucrative’ Customer   Service Opportunity, available at    bit.ly/1wwALWr.)         a. At the 0.05 level of   significance, is there evidence of a difference    between co-browsing organizations   and non-co-browsing     organizations in the proportion that   use skills-based routing to     match the caller with the right   agent?       b. Find the p-value in (a) and   interpret its meaning.

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